Data communication is the primary element that connects us to the devices and services that we depend on in our interconnected digital world. It covers a range of techniques and technologies that govern the way information is transferred from one end to the next. Understanding how this works can help us to design reliable and efficient networks that can reap the benefits of increased connectivity, like better business efficiency as well as higher productivity and advancements in automation.

Data communication is the transfer of data between computers via a medium or channel. This can be done via either a cable, satellite signal, radio frequency or wirelessly. The sender is the individual or device sending data, and the receiver is the computer that receives the data. In a data communications network, more than two computers may be involved in the process of communication.

Multiplexing and demultiplexing are useful communication techniques that allow multiple signals to be sent over the same medium at the same time, maximizing the bandwidth used and reducing costs. Both processes require special equipment that can combine and then separate signals. Custom integrated circuits are often employed to accomplish this task and are present in various communications devices that include cell phones, computers, and printers.

Full-duplex communications is the type of data communication that allows simultaneous two-way communication between a pair of devices. This is a more complex mode than simplex transmission, since it requires the ability to transmit and receive data simultaneously.

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